Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay on Candide a Satire on the Enlightenment - 604 Words

Candide is an outlandishly humorous, far-fetched tale by Voltaire satirizing the optimism espoused by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. It is the story of a young mans adventures throughout the world, where he witnesses much evil and disaster. Throughout his travels, he adheres to the teachings of his tutor, Pangloss, believing that all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. Candide is Voltaires answer to what he saw as an absurd belief proposed by the Optimists - an easy way to rationalize evil and suffering. Though he was by no means a pessimist, Voltaire refused to believe that what happens is always for the best.brbrThe Age of Enlightenment is a term applied to a wide variety of ideas and advances in†¦show more content†¦(526)brbrThe multitudes of disasters, which Candide endures, culminate in his eventual, if temporary, abandonment of optimism. When asked Whats optimism? by Cacambo, Candide replies, AlasÂ…it is a mania for saying things are w ell when one is in hell. (555) brbrCandide finally begins to recognize the futility of his dear Pangloss philosophy. Voltaire concludes Candide by having Candide discover the Turks truth to life - Â…the work keeps us from three great evils, boredom, vice and poverty. (584) Candide and his band of followers consider these words and decide that they must cultivate their garden. Even when the entire group has accepted the pastoral lifestyle, finding contentment, Pangloss the Optimist attempts to prove how all their prior misfortunes were parts of the necessary chain of events for them to reach happiness. Voltaire paints Pangloss as the true dolt of optimism, never realizing the errors of his own logic.brbrEven though a philosopher of the Enlightenment himself, Voltaire uses Candide as a platform to criticize the utter optimism of his fellows. His use of satire throughout the story has a serious purpose. Voltaire uses satire as a means of pointing out injustice, cruelty, andShow More RelatedEssay on Use of Satire to Attack Optimism in Voltaires Candide1358 Words   |  6 PagesUse of Satire to Attack Optimism in Voltaires Candide       In its time, satire was a powerful tool for political assault on Europes corrupt and deteriorating society. Voltaires Candide uses satire to vibrantly and sarcastically portray optimism, a philosophical view from the Enlightenment used to bury the horrors of 18th century life: superstition, sexually transmitted diseases, aristocracy, the church, tyrannical rulers, civil and religious wars, and the cruel punishment of the innocentRead MoreCandide by Voltaire847 Words   |  3 PagesCandide Paper Many critics argue that Candide is not an enlightened work, but Voltaire’s satire thoroughly reflects on the philosophical morals and lessons of the Enlightenment. Voltaire’s satire comments on the political, social, and religious views of the time, emphasizing the beliefs of a majority of enlightenment thinkers and philosophers. Voltaire demonstrates three different enlightenment thoughts or views in his work: anti-feudalism, optimism, and the hypocrisy of the Christian church.Read MoreSwifts ‘Gullivers Travel’ and Voltaires ‘Candide’ Essay663 Words   |  3 PagesSwift’s ‘Gulliver’s Travel’ and Voltaire’s ‘Candide’ Swift’s ‘Gulliver’s Travel’ and Voltaire’s ‘Candide’ are typical literature works during the Enlightenment period. Both authors use satire in their works. Satire is literary form which means irony. Therefore, they have some similarities. They both want to expose human vices through satiric tone. Due to different personal styles, there are many differences between two novels. Two novels use satire to criticize human weakness. In ‘Gulliver’sRead MoreThe Candide By The French Enlightenment1377 Words   |  6 PagesIn the novel Candide by the French Enlightenment writer and philosopher, Voltaire, the use of satire is highly prevalent. Voltaire took many of the follies and views he disagreed with during the Enlightenment and satirized them in this highly unrealistic and exaggerated novel. The events throughout the novel, even if they have some connections or roots in historical events, are seemingly preposterous and embellished because of Voltaire’s heavy use of satire. However, Voltaire merely uses these embellishmentsRead MoreVoltaire s View Of Candide1511 Words   |  7 Pages Voltaire s Candide is a satirical work written in 1759 as a commentary during the Enlightenment. One of Voltaire s most famous works, it also functioned to reflect Voltaire s opinions. Candide is considered Voltaire s signature work in which he levels his sharpest criticism against nobility, philosophy, the church, and human cruelty. Though often considered a representative text of the Enlightenment era, the novel criticizes a number of Enlightenment philosophies. As reading and books wereRead More`` Candide `` A Satire Of The Social, And The Scientific Revolution1608 Words   |  7 PagesThe Enlightenment was a time when authority was questioned, which enforced change. It emerged out of the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution. The Reformation called for a reform of the catholic church. The Scientific Revolution called for moral, social, and political thought to rely on the scientific method and reason rather than the current system of tradition cultural authorities. These ch anges and ideas continued into the Enlightenment. During his time Franà §ois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778)Read MoreEssay on Voltaires Candide988 Words   |  4 PagesVoltaires Candide Candide is a reflection of the philosophical values of the Enlightenment. Voltaire’s novel is a satire of the Old Regime ideologies in which he critiques the political, social, and religious ideals of his time. A common intellectual characteristic of the Enlightenment was anti-feudalism. Philosophers were against the separations in the Old Regime and pushed for equality among human beings. Voltaire parodies the pompousness of the nobility several times throughoutRead MoreCandide : A Reflection Of The Enlightenment1325 Words   |  6 Pages Candide: A Reflection of the Enlightenment Francois-Marie Arouet, otherwise known as Voltaire was an 18th century French philosopher and writer during the Enlightenment period. Voltaire’s most famous work of literature; Candide follows a young man who grows up in a Baron’s castle (Castle Thunder-ten-tronckh), under the instruction of Dr. Pangloss, a tutor and philosopher who worships optimism even under extreme circumstances. Throughout Voltaire’s novel, Candide and his companions encounter aRead More A Comparison of the Quest for Enlightenment in Candide and Dream of the Red Chamber1209 Words   |  5 PagesQuest for Enlightenment in Candide and Dream of the Red Chamber      Ã‚   Seventeenth-century Europe saw the end of the Renaissance and ushered in the Neoclassic era. During this period, which is also called the Enlightenment and The Age of Reason, society advocated rationalism and urged the restraint of emotion. Writers modeled their works after the Greco-Roman satires and picaresque novels. At around the same time in China, the author of Dream of the Red Chamber explores a different kind ofRead MoreVoltaire s Candide : A Critique Of Politics And Religion During The Age Of Enlightenment1500 Words   |  6 Pagespublished Candide, ou l Optimisme simultaneously in five European countries in January of 1759, it was met with widespread denouncement due to its controversial content and scandalous portrayal of politics and religion. Nevertheless, the bitingly satirical novel fervently spread throughout Europe and was translated into several more languages, selling tens of thousands of copies within its first year of publication (Barnes). Despite being first categorized as dangerous blasphemy, Candide is now regarded

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Sociological Factors Of Criminal Behavior Essay - 2085 Words

This paper will focus on the sociological factors of criminal behavior. This study will illustrate how society and other external influences drive an individual into committing crimes. Differential Association Theory and Strain Theory will be applied in this paper. Research by Agnew, Helfgott, Merton, Sharma, S., Sharma, G., Barkataki and others will be examined as well. Additionally, an experiment conducted by Patenoster, McGloin, Nguyen, Thomas and a story told by BBC will be used as an aid to a deeper understanding in the external factors of criminal behavior. The main focus centers around on how society and other external factors play a role in the development of criminal behavior. Keywords: crime, Differential Association Theory, Strain Theory, deviance, delinquency, media, society, copycat crime, external factors, criminal behavior Criminal behavior is defined as an act that violates the public law established by the government. Individuals exhibiting criminal behavior may be subjected to negative consequences such as imprisonment or death penalty. Criminal behavior is normally associated with deviance, which is the violations of norms (Henslin, 2017). The factors which influences the criminal behavior is often debated by researchers, whether they are acquired or inborn. Specifically, scientists who study sociobiology believe that genetic predispositions lead people to engage in deviant or criminal acts (Henslin, 2017). As the study of geneticsShow MoreRelatedtheories on crime comparison1138 Words   |  5 Pagespaper will provide information on sociological theory including the relationship between personality and criminal behavior according to sociological theory. Also, this paper will provide a comparison on each key elements on sociological theory, biological theory, and psychological theory. In addition, the paper will allow each reader to understand the philosophical basis for each theory. Sociological Theory Sociological theory identifies different social factors that connects individuals to crimeRead MoreTheories on Crime1253 Words   |  5 Pageschallenges in developing theories that explain human behavior. In relation to crime, human behavior varies because participants differ in backgrounds, experiences, and characteristics. However, several criminologists and other social scientists have made important contributions in explaining criminal behavior. These contributions have mainly involved the establishment of several theories on crime that focus on various aspects of criminal behavior. Some of the major theories on crime include classicalRead MoreWhy do individuals commit crimes?1381 Words   |  6 Pagesresearchers of all kinds have been persistent in analyzing criminals for an answer. The scholarly attention to crime from various perspectives has allowed for an extensive range of theories which are based on three broad theoretical approaches of explaining criminal behaviour. Th ese theoretical approaches, which focus on the causes of crime and deviance in modern society, are the biological approach, psychological approach and the sociological approach. First, the Biological Theory believes that anRead MoreThe Theory Of Body Types, And The Y Chromosome Theory1194 Words   |  5 Pages psychological, and sociological perspectives have applied their different thought processes to produce many theories. Some of these ideas have been discredited, however some remain significant today. Sociological theories differ from biological and psychological theories by looking at external factors rather than internal ones. Biological theories on deviance are the result of looking for answers that are specific to certain individuals, namely, criminals and non-criminals. Theorists in this respectRead MoreThe Theory Of Crime Causation871 Words   |  4 PagesSince then, criminologists have expanded on the idea and have developed new ways as to why people commit crime; all including theories such as biological, psychological, and sociological causes for crime (Siegel, 2013). Biological theories of crime made the assumptions that physical traits can lead an individual to criminal activities. Biological theories of crime causation were initially based on the assumption that delinquency is inherited. Physical attributes were known to pass down from parentRead MoreDigital Crime Theory And The Psychoanalytic Theory1017 Words   |  5 Pagesperform daily activities. (Hafner, K. et.al., 1995). The haste to clasp this new technology has led to unveiling of a new line of criminals and criminal activities, commonly referred as hackers and hacking respectively. For us to understand the criminal behavior of cyber criminals, it’s critical to examine the traditional psychological theories of the criminal behavior and their application to generate a breakthrough to understand hacking. The two primary cybercrime theories are the learning theoryRead MoreThe Theory Of Crime : The Classical View960 Words   |  4 Pagesview believes that a person’s decisions are not made due to free will, but shaped by society and the environment that they live in. From these two main views branched many different views to explain who or what may be responsible for crime; known as criminal behavioral theories. Influenced by the classical theory is the rational choice theory, all the other theories; biosocial, psychological, social learning, and social structure is influenced by the positivist view. The rational choice theory believesRead MoreSocial and Biological Reasoning Behind Crime1592 Words   |  7 Pagestheories for why criminals are criminals. These theories have been developed, changed, and even thrown out over the years. Each one has been contradicted and reaffirmed, until eventually there is a consensus for both biological and sociological reasons which would explain why a person would act criminally or participate in a criminal act/behavior. I argue that the most relevant theories to answering why a person would do these things are social disorganization and neurological factors, specificallyRead MoreThe Crime Of The Criminal Justice System845 Words   |  4 PagesThe criminal justice policy has many different aspects. This include the different theories of crime and how they have an impact the criminal justice system. Some of this theories are the Biological studies, Psychological theories, and last the Sociological theory all are used as different methods of exp laining why crime exists. Biological theories are the biological explanations of crime. A famous theorists Cesare Lombroso, founder of the Italian school of Positivist Criminology. His biologicalRead MoreIp3 Crime Causation1535 Words   |  7 PagesUnit 3 Crime Causation CRJS105-1201A-03 By Erika.Esquer1 1/22/2012 American InterContinental University Online Abstract This essay will focus on sociological theories of crime and their description, the strengths and weaknesses of each; sociological control theory, strain theory, differential association theory and neutralization theory. This essay will also focus on Rajartnam who was convicted for inside trading in 2011. Introduction A different approach to criminological theory was

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Concept of Justice Free Essays

string(156) " a person engaging in injustice will most likely become wealthy in physical attributes, he lacks the fundamental virtues and characteristics of a good man\." Socrates and Aristotle both have contrasting views of the concept of justice which serves to influence their notions of an ideal constitution. The abstract, speculative ideas of Socrates will be compared and contrasted with the practical, sensory ones of Aristotle in matters concerning justice and politics. Both Aristotle and Socrates disagree with regards to the definition of justice and what qualities are attributed to a just person. We will write a custom essay sample on The Concept of Justice or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to Aristotle, a just person must follow the law and refrain from greed. In the opinion of Socrates, greed consists of taking more than what is required to survive. He stresses the importance of prudence and temperance in the lives of a just person. Aristotle, however, states that a greedy person is someone who does not understand the difference between taking what is good and what is not good. A wealthy person can also be just. Aristotle provides two different types of justice which he labels distributive and rectifactory justice. Distributive justice is concerned with the distribution of money, honour, and other resources amongst those who have a share in public organization. Equality is of the greatest importance when distributing goods. Rectifactory justice concerns transactions between individuals in which both parties mutually exchange goods or services. Through both of these means Aristotle seeks to provide justice in the written law of his polis which is devoted to the advantage of all. However, Socrates views justice as the harmonious parts of the person or of a city. A just man, therefore, is in just the right place and doing his best to perform his function. He claims that the function of a human being is deliberation, ruling, living, and taking care of things. The ideas of Aristotle differ greatly from this perspective. He states that the human function is to perform activities that express reason. Socrates views his ideal city in which every person performs his or her function. His views pertain to the community in which a person lives while Aristotle’s views are more individualistic as someone who expresses reason in his logic can do so without other people or his community. In the Republic, Socrates attempts to illustrate his views with the parable of the ship. The unjust city is like an open ocean crewed by a powerful but drunken captain (representing the ignorant common people), a group of untrustworthy advisors (politicians), and a navigator (the philosopher). The only way the ship will reach its destination, the good, is if the navigator takes charge. Philosophers, who are lovers of wisdom, should rule because they understand what is good and just. It is also the opinion of Socrates that people who have been the victims of injustice are more likely to become unjust themselves. He disagrees with the notion that returning debts owed, helping friends, and harming enemies are not suitable reasons for doing injustice: â€Å"So if someone tells us it is just to give to each what he is owed and understands by this that a just man should harm his enemies and benefit his friends, the one who says it is not wise. I mean, what he says is not true. For it has become clear to us that it is never just to harm anyone† (Plato, Republic, 335e). A wise person would understand that it is not beneficial to his soul to do injustice only to his enemies. A wise person, according to Socrates would never harm anyone. He maintains that a kind just ruler judges what is best for his people and holds their interests in greater esteem than his friends or family: â€Å"†¦ No one in any position of rule†¦ considers or enjoins what is advantageous for himself, but what is advantageous for his subjects† (Plato, Republic, 342e). A ruler who performs acts of injustice is, by nature, more prone to corruption and tyranny. In this way he gives increased support to his argument concerning philosophers as rulers of the polis. Socrates and Aristotle also differ in their opinions as to which form of government is best to rule the polis. Socrates defends the notion that the city would best be governed by the philosopher-kings; a group of people who had endured rigorous mental and physical training for the majority of their lives. They would govern together as a group or an oligarchy. Aristotle recognizes the fact that it is possible for an oligarchy to degenerate into a tyranny, which is the worst possible state. He recommends the formation of a polity or a democracy as the lesser of two evils. Socrates draws a fine line between ignorance and wisdom. It is, in fact, recognizing what one does not know from what one knows. Therefore, if one cannot recognize the virtue of justice, one must be said to be ignorant: â€Å"†¦ if justice is indeed wisdom and virtue, it will be easy to show, I suppose, that it is stronger than injustice, since injustice is ignorance† (Plato, Republic, 351a). Wisdom is undoubtedly the more esteemed when compared with ignorance and consequently justice must be better esteemed than injustice. However, Socrates is confronted with arguments in favour of injustice. He attempts to defend justice as being more profitable than injustice: â€Å"†¦ that to do injustice is naturally good and to suffer injustice bad†¦ The best is to do injustice without paying the penalty; the worst is to suffer it without taking revenge† (Plato, Republic, 358e). In other words, it is acceptable and encouraged for someone to perform acts of injustice as long as he is not found out and does not suffer the consequences. If however, an act of injustice is carried out against someone, it is the duty of the victim to take revenge on him. Socrates points out that this course of action leads only to unimportant material gain. Thrasymachus claims that committing acts of injustice without being caught is more profitable to one’s reputation and would allow one to achieve more. Socrates acknowledges that although a person engaging in injustice will most likely become wealthy in physical attributes, he lacks the fundamental virtues and characteristics of a good man. You read "The Concept of Justice" in category "Essay examples" The virtue of something is the state or property that makes it good. For instance, the virtue of a man may include his intelligence, courage, or sense of justice. Justice, in this case, is a moral behaviour which is said to belong to virtuous people. Therefore, justice itself is a virtue. Thrasymachus’ argument has no merit because a man who strives to achieve more by acquiring material wealth through committing acts of injustice lacks the more esteemed virtues of wisdom and justice. It is also the opinion of Socrates that just people are happier and live better lives than unjust ones. He is, of course, talking about the happiness of the soul rather than its shell, the body. Much as the virtue of the eyes is to see and the virtue of the ears to hear, the virtue of the soul is justice: â€Å"†¦ ustice is a soul’s virtue and justice its vice† (Plato, Republic, 353e). It is more profitable for a person to be just than unjust, as he will be giving his soul its virtue and therefore living a happy life. Better is the poor man with a good just soul than the rich man who has made his wealth through vice with a tainted soul. However, it must be pointed out that although Socrates claims that justice leads to happiness, he deprives the rulers of his city of happiness, though they are supposed to be trained in justice and wisdom. As Aristotle states: â€Å"†¦ ven though Socrates deprives the guardians of their happiness, he says that the legislator should make the whole city-state happy. But it is impossible for the whole to be happy unless all, most, are some of its parts are happy† (Aristotle, Politics, 1264b). Socrates thought it was crucial that the guardians were not given the sort of happiness which would no longer make them guardians. For a potter who is given jewels and riches no longer practices the art of pottery and so is no longer considered a potter. Likewise, a guardian must not be given wealth or earthly comforts but remain content with his role. Aristotle argues that even if the guardian class is not happy, it is impossible for the craftsmen, farmers, and lower classes to be happy. Without happiness, there is no justice. Socrates also claims that just people are able to work together in order to achieve a common goal. He maintains that just people working together are able to get along without doing injustice amongst themselves: â€Å"†¦ just people are wiser and better and more capable of acting, while unjust ones are not even able to act together† (Plato, Republic, 352c). Injustice causes factions, hatreds, and quarrels among people and friends. A band of robbers with a common unjust purpose would not be able to achieve it if they are unjust amongst themselves. Injustice provides conditions in which it is impossible for people to work together. Therefore, injustice prevents the different parts of the soul from working together toward a common goal. In the case of friendship and justice, Socrates and Aristotle seem to be in mutual accord. Aristotle believes friendship and comradeship to be one of the key components of leading a good life. He viewed justice as the equitability or fairness in interpersonal relations. Virtuous habits can be acquired within a moral community which ultimately leads to a virtuous and moral life. Socrates believes that the nature of the state is analogous with the nature of the individual and the nature of the soul. The soul comprises of three key principles which he calls reason, appetite, and spirit. Justice in the individual is harmony among the principles of the soul achieved by rationality and reason. He believes that the guardians have achieved harmony within their souls and so must be considered just. Since the faculties of an individual correspond on a smaller scale to that of the state, justice must also exist in the individual. Socrates believes in unity, as expressed by his confidence in the ability of just people to work together and of the family structure in the Republic. Women and children are to be shared communally by the guardians. No one woman, child, or possession is to belong to one man but rather to be shared by the whole. The well-being of the polis is placed before the well-being of an individual. Aristotle agrees that unity needs to be present to a certain extent within a city but alleges that a man who can call something his own takes more pride in it. He loves a son he can call his own more than a boy who is a son of every man. He also takes more pride in his work when he knows that what he is producing will benefit himself and his family. Socrates claims that temperance is the path to happiness and virtue and a person should only own what he needs to live temperately. Aristotle disagrees with this notion and states that it is possible to live temperately and wretchedly; the lack of property does not necessarily lead to a good life. A good person can be good even independently of the society. However, a good person is a good citizen and a good citizen can exist only as a part of the social structure. In this way, the state is, in a sense, prior to the citizen. It is evident Socrates and Aristotle share the common belief that justice is undoubtedly more beneficial than injustice. However, their definitions of justice vary greatly. The main and most crucial difference between the perspectives of Aristotle and Socrates is their view of friendship and unity. Aristotle believes that the virtue of justice encompasses all other virtues because it treats the interactions between people rather than just the dispositions of the individual. Socrates believes that the virtue of justice is first and foremost beneficial to one’s soul. Despite their contrasting views, both Aristotle and Socrates believe that justice is one of the highest and most sought after virtues. If one is to have a good life, one must be just. How to cite The Concept of Justice, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Spiders Essay Research Paper Spiders free essay sample

Spiders Essay, Research Paper Spiders My essay is on spiders. I have chosen a few spiders to describe about. I besides have some basic info about spiders in general. Spiders comprise a big, widespread group of carnivorous arthropods. They have eight legs, can bring forth silk, and normally have toxicant secretory organs associated with Fangs. More than 30,000 species of spiders are found on every continent except Antarctica in about every sort of tellurian home ground and a few aquatic 1s every bit good. Spiders range in organic structure size from about 0.5 millimeters ( 0.02 in ) to 9 centimeter ( 3.5 in ) . The term spider is derived from the Old English spinnan ( # 8220 ; to whirl # 8221 ; ) mentioning to the group # 8217 ; s usage of silk. Spiders make up the order Araneae in the category Arachnida, which takes its name from the fabulous character Arachne, a peasant miss who challenged the weaving accomplishment of the goddess Athena. Arachne equaled Athena # 8217 ; s skill in a competition, and in response to Athena # 8217 ; s anger she hanged herself. We will write a custom essay sample on Spiders Essay Research Paper Spiders or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In tardy compunction Athena changed the organic structure of Arachne into a spider and allowed her to retain her weaving accomplishment. My first choice is the brown hermit spider. The brown hermit spider ( Loxosceles reclusa ) is a toxicant spider in in the United States. Its largely found from Kansas and Missouri, South to Texas, and west to California. Found in sheltered topographic points indoors and out-of-doorss it is about 10 millimeters ( .4 in. ) long and has an orange-yellow organic structure with a dark violin-shaped design on its dorsum. Its bite International Relations and Security Network # 8217 ; t normally fatal to worlds, the venom destroys the tegument and it may take a few months to mend. The brown hermit is largely active at dark. it feeds on little insects that it paralyzes with its toxicant. The Black Widow The black widow, Latrodectus mactans, is a toxicant spider of the household Theridiidae, order Araneida. The female, approximately 1.3 centimeter ( 0.5 in ) cubic decimeter ong, is calendered black, dumbly clothed with microscopic hairs, and has a ruddy hourglass grade on the bottom of the venters. The male, which is seldom seen, is smaller than the female and has four braces of ruddy Markss along the sides of the venters. The black widow is found worldwide in the heater parts in every province in the United States except Alaska and Hawaii ; it lives in a assortment of natural and domestic home grounds. By and large, the females are non aggressive unless agitated, although they are prone to seize with teeth when guarding an egg pouch. The deadly bite of the black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans, causes musculus cramps and take a breathing trouble in worlds and may be fatal. The female is distinguished by a ruddy hourglass taging on its bottom. The black widow eats a diet of insects, spiders and centipedes captured in its web. After copulating, the female may entrap and feed upon her mate # 8211 ; hence the name black widow. It? s deadly bite causes musculus cramps and trouble in external respiration. European wolf spiders In common American use, tarantulas are the big, haired durable spiders that make up the household Theraphosidae. Related signifiers such as funnel-web spiders and trap door spiders are besides frequently called European wolf spiders. The name came from a smaller wolf spider of Europe but was so applied by adventurers of the New World to the elephantine spiders that they encountered. No North American species has a venom that is unsafe to worlds, but tarantula organic structure hairs may bring on an allergic reaction. Tarantulas can give you a painful bite. Tarantulas occur in heater parts, where they feed on both invertebrates and little craniates. Many turn to approximately 2.5 to 7.5 centimeter ( 1 to 3 in ) long, with a 13-cm species ( 5-in ) legspan, and some South American bird-catching species are larger. Some European wolf spiders reach an age of 20 old ages.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Paul Reveres Midnight Ride Essays - Massachusetts, Foundrymen

Paul Revere's Midnight Ride Essays - Massachusetts, Foundrymen Paul Revere's Midnight Ride Paul Revere was a very patriotic man who would later save some of the leaders of what now is our country. Paul was a silversmith in the town of Boston. He came over to the colonies from France. His father taught him the silversmiths trade. He also became a gold and copper smith. Then on, He became very interested in patriotism and independence from Britain. He engraved alot of cartoons which were published in the Boston news papers. He was also one of the fifty people who took place in the Boston Tea party. He married Sarah Orne and had eight kids who most died at infancy. Then his wife Sarah died after having their eighth child . A few years later he married Rachel Walker and had eight more children. He served for the people of Boston as a special messenger.(101) On March 5, 1770 people were taunting the British and throwing snowballs at them . They got so fed up and started firing shots. Six people were killed. The Boston Massacre was just one of the many violent acts that were to follow. After the Boston Massacre the British removed all taxes except for a small tax on tea. Boston wasnt the only town who refused the tea just one of the most violent. Paul Revere and his accomplices came up with a plan. They would paint their faces and dress up like Indians and go aboard the boat that held tea from the East India Company. They emptied the tea chests into the water while people cheered from the docks. One man stole some tea for his own use had to run around town(100) with no water or breaks and they also nailed his coat to a wall which was some kind of symbolic gesture. After the Boston Tea Party King George shut off Boston Harbor which was Boston's only resource. Pauls first ride was to ride to other colonies and tell them about what happened and to ask them for

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

What Is SAT Writing and Language 5 Tips to Excel

What Is SAT Writing and Language 5 Tips to Excel SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Stephen King once wrote, "To write is human, to edit is divine." Anyone who has written papers for school knows that first, second, and even third drafts can be full of errors. Through editing and revising, youcan polish a piece of writing into its best form. The Writing and Language section of the SAT asks you tobe that "divine" editor. Itasksyou to improve paragraphs that contain both little picture mistakesand big picture weaknesses. Writing and Language will be combined with your Reading score, but it’s a unique section that requires its own specific approach to prep. This guide is your first stop for preparing for the Writing and Language section of the SAT; read on to learn everything you need to know! What's New AboutSAT Writing and Language? The new SAT Writing and Language section differs from the old SAT’s Writing section in a number of ways, one of which is its name. It’s now called Writing and Language, though most people will probably just shorten it to SAT Writing. (As will I, unless I'm differentiating between the old Writing section and the new one.) Since both sections test your understanding of the conventions of the English language, you can consider them to be similar. However, there are someimportant differences between the two sections beyond what they're called. The new Writing sectionhas anexpanded emphasis on how language functions in different contexts(one reason, perhaps, behind the name change). No longer will students answer stand-alone questions about fixing individual sentences. Now, all the questions are passage-based, and many ask you to improve meaning, style, or flow of ideas. Since all the questions are based on passages, that means â€Å"sentence completions† and â€Å"identifying errors† questions have been completely eliminated. You’ll still need to apply rules of grammar - and now rules of punctuation, as well - to fix sentences, but all of these will be contained within the context of a paragraph and passage. I’ll delve into the content of SAT Writing more below, but first I want to point out one more change that distinguishes it from the SAT Writing section of years past. SAT Writing is now combined with Reading to make one verbal score out of 800. Your score report will break down your performance by individual section, but your overall scores that matter for college will be made up of one math score and one combined Reading and Writing score. While the SAT Writing and Language section is similar to its predecessor, the above make up the main changes of which you should be aware. To reiterate them briefly... the Writing section is now called Writing and Language. this section focuses on both little picture editing - grammar, word choice, punctuation - and big picture editing - flow, organization, and tone. all of the questions are passage-based. your Writing score will be combined with your Reading score to make one verbal score, on a range from 200 to 800. Now that you know about the main changes to the SAT Writing and Language section, let’s take a closer look at how this section works, starting with a review of its structure. The Writing section is only35 minutes, so it might just be over before you know it. How Is SATWriting and Language Structured? As you saw above, though, it’s different than the SAT Writing section of past years, so make sure you don’t confuse the old and new SAT Writing sections as exact equivalents. SAT Writing will be your second section on the SAT, right after Reading and a five-minute break. After you’ve stretched and snacked, you’ll get to work on Writing, which asks you 44 questions in 35 minutes. You’ll have about 47 to 48 seconds to answer each question. All of the Writing questions are multiple choice and feature four answer choices, A, B, C, and D. As you read above, every single question on SAT Writing is passage-based. Some questions may be detail-oriented, even asking you about a single word, but they’ll still point to that detail within the context of a longer passage. Within the Writing section, you’ll get four passages of about four to five paragraphs, or 400 to 450 words, each. Every passage will accompany 11 questions. Don’t worry about having to flip back and forth through the test booklet to find your answer. The questions will be lined up alongside the paragraphs to which they refer. Here’s a preview of the format (this passage continues from a previous page): In addition to knowing exactly how many passages and questions you’ll encounter, you’ll also be able to anticipate the broad topics of each passage. One Writing passage will feature a major career field,such as health care, technology, or historical pirate reenactment. What Are the SAT Writing Passages Like? While you won’t know exactly what your Writing passages will look like, you can have a general sense of their topics. According to College Board, these always include careers, social studies, the humanities, and science. Careers - passage might feature trends or debates in major fields, like business, technology, or health care. Social studies - passage might draw from history, anthropology, psychology, political science, sociology, among other areas. Humanities - this passage might focus on arts and literature, feature an author, or describe trends in prose, poetry, art, music, or dance. Science - this passage will explore topics in earth science, biology, chemistry, or physics. Unlike the Reading section of the SAT, the Writing section won’t include any prose. Instead, the passages may take the form of an argument, an informative or explanatory text, or a nonfiction narrative. Additionally, one or more passages might contain an informational graphic, like a chart, graph, or table. These graphics are no longer contained only in math questions, but instead show up throughout the SAT! Now that you have a sense of the structure and format of SAT Writing, let’s discuss the skills it seeks to test. SAT Writing asks you to mow down overgrown details and graze for stray errors. What Skills Does SAT Writing and Language Test? SAT Writing tests a number of skills, from the detail-oriented to the big picture. It wants to make sure you understand sentence structure and punctuation, but it also seeks to measure your ability to organize the information and ideas within a passage. In a nutshell, SAT Writing makes sure you can use language effectively to develop ideas and prove a point. With the inclusion of graphics, it also wants you to be able to describe and back up those ideas accurately with data. Of course, you’re not producing the paragraphs as you wouldbe if you tookthe SAT Essay section. Instead, you need to be able to spot and fix errors within andimprove organizationof pre-written paragraphs. You’ll be asked to revise and edit texts and to show facility with the conventions of grammar, usage, and punctuation. A few questions are also vocabulary-based, asking you about word choice and how it can shape tone and meaning. According to College Board, SAT Writing covers four major skills areas: Command of Evidence, Words in Context, Expression of ideas, and Standard English Conventions.Here's the breakdown: About 24 questions, or 55%, cover Command of Evidence, Words in Context, and Expression of Ideas. These questions ask about development, organization, and effective language use About 20 questions, or 45%, will cover Standard English Conventions. These questions ask about sentence structure, usage, and punctuation. Between 2 and 4% of all questions will also ask you to interpret data from a graphic. These questions often ask you to revise a sentence so that it accurately represents information given in the corresponding graphic. Here’s an example of a typical data interpretation question: Now that you have a sense of the structure and purpose of SAT Writing, let’s delve deeper into each major skill area. Read on to learn about the concepts tested, as well as to see an official sample question for each area. Attention in the courtroom!The first skill areacalls for strong supporting evidence. #1: Command of Evidence Command of Evidence questions ask you to improve the way a passage develops information and ideas. These are â€Å"big picture† questions. You may have to add a supporting detail or choose a sentence that would strengthen the passage’s argument. Because these questions are concerned with overall meaning and function, they usually require that you read the entire passage before answering. The sample question below, for example, represents a Command of Evidence question. It asks you to choose a sentence that, if added to the paragraph, would best introduce its main topic. Answer: C #2: Words in Context Words in Context questions are all about vocabulary and word choice, otherwise known as diction. Based on context, you’ll have to choose the best word or phrase for a sentence. In some cases, you’ll have to correct an error. In others, you’ll replace a word with one that improves the passage’s style or tone. Unlike Command of Evidence questions, Words in Context questions often point to a single line within a passage. You may be able to answer these questions without reading the entire passage first - though having context is always helpful. Just as you need to be able to spot and fix an error, you also must be able to recognize when no error exists. That’s why the first answer choice (A) for these questions will always be, â€Å"No Change.† In the example below, you’re asked to choose the correct word, not improve style or tone. Notice how this question represents the SAT’s focus on more commonly used vocabulary words that may have multiple meanings. Answer:D #3: Expression of Ideas Back to big picture! Expression of Ideas questions ask about the overall organization of a passage or strength of an argument. They may refer to individual sentences and ask you whether or not (and how) they should be rearranged. They also might refer to larger structural changes you could make to improve flow or make the passage more impactful. The following sample question asks about whether a sentence should be kept or deleted and why. You need to demonstrate your understanding of how a sentence functions within its context, as well as provide your reasoning behind your decision. Answer: D #4: Standard English Conventions This last category of questions may be the one that most commonly comes to mind when people think about SAT Writing. These are the detail-oriented questions that ask about sentence structure, usage, and punctuation. You may be asked to fix mistakes in clauses and sentences. Some grammar rules that SAT Writing tests include verb tense, parallel construction, subject-verb agreement, pronoun use, and commas. The following are two examples of Standard English Conventions questions. The first asks about subject-verb agreement and verb tense, while the second tests subject-possessive pronoun agreement and the difference between â€Å"it’s† and â€Å"its.† Answers:18. A; 19. D Your first step in studying for SAT Writing should be familiarizing yourself with exactly what’s on it. If you’ve made it this far in the guide, then congratulations! You’ve completed the first step of your prep. Now, what else can you do to study for the Writing section of the SAT? Most of the passagespresent an argument or describe an argument, so reading the news may help you prep. Just opt for articles and editorials over crossword puzzles and comics. How to Study for SAT Writing In case you had any misconceptions that SAT Writing was only about grammar rules, you should have them cleared up by now! This sectionalso tests your ability to edit entire paragraphs and passages for logical flow, organization, tone, and argument. Studying grammar rules and punctuation is still an important part of your prep, but you’ll also need to sharpen your writing and editing skills and understanding of construction. So how can you develop all the editorial skills you need to excel on SAT Writing? Read on for five useful study tips. #1: Study Rules of Grammar, Punctuation, and Usage As you saw above, about 45% of your SAT Writing questions will cover Standard English Conventions. Thus, a firm grasp of the rules of grammar, punctuation, and usage is essential for answering these questions. Luckily, there’s a plethora (classic old SAT word) of resources for reviewing these rules, both for the updated and old SAT Writing sections. Make sure your study materials break down all the important rules, such as parallel structure, modifier placement, verb tense, subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, items in a series, end of sentence and within-sentence punctuation. You can find a decent breakdown of the rules on pages 63 and 67 of College Board's guide to the redesigned SAT. As you study these rules, you shouldanswer practice questions. You’ll need to recognize what rule a question is testing and how to apply it. With a solid grounding in grammar, you can know why your answer is correct, rather than simply relying on a risky strategy of going with what sounds right. For the most part, these questions don’t require that you comprehend the entire passage before answering. However, context is important for all these passage-basedSAT Writing questions. You should probably at least skim the relevant paragraph before answering these detail-oriented questions. Did you ever study the "hamburger" structure of paragraphs and essays? It was actually a pretty useful, if hunger-inducing, tool for understanding proper structure. #2: Develop Writing Skills in School Since SAT Writing questions ask you to improve organization, strengthen arguments, and clarify points, you’ll need to possess strong writing skills. Much of the writing and editing you do in school, whether it’s on your own papers or for peers, should help you grow as a writer. Since the Writing section incorporates argument-based, explanatory, and nonfiction narrative texts, you should especially focus on these types of writing. It will also help to go back to basics to ensure you have a strong grounding in structure. Remember the â€Å"hamburger† structure from middle school? The top bun represented the introductory sentence that spoke to the main point of a paragraph. The lettuce, tomato, and burger stood forsupporting details, all of which related to the main topic and flowed logically from one to the next. Finally, the bottom bun symbolizedthe concluding sentence, which wrapped everything up nicely. This structure describes a paragraph, or can be broadened to representan essay as a whole. By recalling this fundamental structure, you can keep a critical eye on the organization of essays you write and read. Then when an SAT Writing question asks about rearranging sentences or adding a topic sentence, you can have a strong sense of what to do and why. It may also remind you to keep an eye out for transitions and how to organize ideasin a logical order. Improving your writing skills may feel harder to pin down than studying concrete grammar rules, but you should feel confident that the more you read and write, the more progress you’ll make. As long as you pay attention to feedback you get on your writing and keep a critical eye as you read and edit, you’ll gain a stronger sense of the mechanics of the written word. #3: Read Essays and Newspaper Articles Just as practicing writing and editing will enhance your grasp of the English language, so too will reading widely. Seek out persuasive, informative, and nonfiction narrative texts, like academic essays or news and magazine articles. As you read, pay attention tostructure and flow. Take notes on how an author introduces her argument and what supporting details she includes to build a case or explain a topic. Also,circle transitional words and phrases that allow one point, sentence, or paragraph to flow into another. Circling back to the last point, you can model your own writing based on what you learn from reading expert works. An SAT word a day keeps the doctor away! #4: Study the Right Kind ofVocabulary The vocabulary questions on SAT Writing won’t ask about particularly obscure or high level words. Instead, they’ll test the meaning of more common words that may have different meanings depending on their contexts. Similarly, they may ask about frequently confused words, such as in the example above that asks you to choose between outdo, outweigh, and outperform. As you study vocabulary, therefore, you should pay attention to nuance and shifts in meaning depending on context. Keep an eye out for words that are used one way in one passage and another way in a different passage. Focusing on more common words that can be used in unusual ways will also help you on the SAT Reading section. #5: Practice Data Interpretation The SAT will feature graphs, charts, and tables in all three sections, Reading, Writing, and Math. Just about 2 to 4% of your Writing questions will refer to a graphic, but you want to make sure you’ve sharpened your data interpretation skills. Some of these questions may ask whether a sentence accurately conveys information represented in a chart. Others may combine skills with a Command of Evidence question by asking if you should insert a sentence based on the graph in order to reinforce a point or strengthen an argument. Again, developing your skills of data interpretation from graphs, tables, and charts won’t just help you on SAT Writing; it will also help you do well on SAT Reading and SAT Math. You can practice with SAT practice questions, as well as some questions from ACT Science. Before you start in on your SAT Writing prep, let’s review the main features of this section. Develop your "eagle eye" for errors in grammar and usage. Fun fact: eagles are one of nature's most literary creatures, second only to bespectacled owls. Key Facts About SAT Writing and Language The SAT Writing sectionasks you to be an editor. This section tasks you with reading passages, fixing mistakes, and improving word choice and organization. You’ll need to develop both your little picture skills of grammar, punctuation, and vocabulary, as well as your big picture skills of paragraph construction and argument development. To answer these multiple choice, passage-based questions, you should develop a strong understanding of the English language, particularly how it functions when constructing an argument, explanation, or nonfiction narrative. Studying grammar rules and vocabulary, along with reading and writing widely, will enhance your facility with language and, ultimately, help you master the SAT Writing and Language section. What’s Next? What other grammar rules do you need to know besides subject-verb agreement? This guide contains the complete list of SAT grammar rules, broken down one by one. Are you aiming for top scores in SAT Writing? In this guide, a full scorer shares his tips, tricks, and strategies for achieving a perfect SAT Writing score. Since your Writing score is combined with your Reading score on the SAT, you’ll have to do well on both sections to achieve a high verbal score. Check out ourultimate study guide forthe SAT Reading section to learn about content, reading strategies, and practice questions. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by SAT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Saturday, February 15, 2020

This I Believe Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

This I Believe - Assignment Example d to have to exercise a lot just to survive because catching or collecting the meals and then getting them ready to eat, plus taking care of a place of shelter and clothing used to take a lot of effort. Now we can go to the store for all the things we need and it doesn’t take so much effort to walk through the market. In the meantime, our body is still wanting to move and the muscles get stiff and tired when we don’t exercise. When we do exercise, though, the blood vessels open up and more nutrients get to our muscles so that they are not so stiff. The muscles get strong and can help to support our body so that we can do the things we want to do. If we don’t exercise, all the food and things that we put in our bodies just sits there and turns into fat. This is not attractive. We get extra rolls around our waists and our legs get big so that they rub together when we walk. We get extra chins and we don’t move so much because we are so uncomfortable. When people get really fat, they start to look like something else and this is definitely not attractive. We can’t fit into our clothes anymore and the clothes that we can fit into do not look good because they can’t force us into a better shape. Even when the clothes are specially made to ‘control the tummy’ or to shape the leg, they are not comfortable to us and we don’t like to wear them. We may feel like getting sweaty is not attractive, but getting too big is even less attractive. What’s most important about exercise, though, is that it makes us feel better. When our bodies are healthier and work better, we don’t get sick as easy and this helps us to feel better in all things. If we are not very fat, we don’t have a hard time moving around or doing the things that other people are doing and so we feel more like we can join in the fun. We don’t have to look like a movie star to feel like we are attractive if we are ‘in shape’ for our body style and we feel more confident